Path-breaking discoveries of biology

Biology wonderfully undertakes the natural aspects of life, and stunningly collaborates itself with a human’s infinite curiosity. Over the centuries biology has given us reasons and resolutions to tackle the threatening biological adversities, and it wonderfully continues to do so.

It is impossible to judge which is the greatest contribution in the biology domain, but here are some of the most ultimate biological inventions and discoveries of all time.

The theory of Evolution by natural selection
Darwin’s theory of Evolution advocates the notion that all forms of life has descended from a single ancestor. It focuses on the theory that all the complex forms of organism have naturally evolved from the basic predecessor. Although Darwin wasn’t the first person to study the process of evolution, he was able to gain widespread support because of his coherent demonstrations. The concept of natural selection in evolution basically explains how there is a competition for limited resources in common species. This struggle for surviving is gradually passed on to their descendants, along with certain practical endurance skills. This process of natural selection is also known as survival of the fittest. This theory beautifully projects how and why humans are on the top of the universal food chain.

DNA, completely turned around the way we look at life. Its discovery was a wake-up call for all the generations. DNA made us understand that the life we are living was never contained, but was rather an unending chain of possibilities. Since, its discovery it has not only affected the medical sciences but has reinvented our approach towards almost all walks of life. Not just in healthcare sector, DNA opened up avenues in agriculture, animal husbandry, forensics and even transformed the social strata of biological relations.

Polio vaccine
Invented by virologist Jonas Sulk, the polio vaccine is of the most crucial inventions of all time. Polio was considered to be the most terrifying health threat post World War 2. Salk undertook a research project affiliated and sponsored by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, after polio claimed thousands of lives and left countless disabled. Not only he developed an effective vaccine consisting of a killed polio virus, but also devised a meticulous plan to combat the outbreak. His trial arrangement had thousands of physicians, health officers and volunteers. Subsequently after the breakthrough of the injected polio vaccine (IPV), Dr. Albert Sabin came up with an alternative oral polio vaccine (OPV) that used the weakened strain of the virus in 1962.

Birth control pills
Gregory Pincus’s birth control pills have revolutionized the biological and social aspects of a human life. After meeting Margaret Sanger, Goodwin was deeply inspired to research on contraception. Along with the co-inventor, Min Chueh Chang, he began developing an oral pill combining estrogen and progestin. Their trials conducted in Puerto Rico were successful, and were later approved legally to be circulated amongst the public. This gradually led to the modern birth control movement advocating planned parenthood, population control and women’s rights.


  • How to identify Lupus
    Lupus is an autoimmune disease. When the immune system becomes hyperactive the immune system starts attacking body parts itself causing inflammation and destruction of tissue. Autoimmune diseases are characterised by periodic flare ups and remissions. What is usually called lupus is medically known as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. As the name indicates it can affect any of the body systems and organs in them and it is the most virulent of all. Lupus affects each person in a unique way. Luckily all symptoms are not manifested by every patient; while some gets certain symptoms, the others end up getting the rest. Lupus starts innocuously, in the age group of 18 to 30 years, and looks like a myriad of common diseases. It is important to identify it at the earliest as it is easy to manage and control it. The prognosis improves vastly and one can expect to live an active life to the full span. An important and early feature is spells of fatigue which flares up and remits periodically. If one experiences, frequently, such spells of fatigue one should contact his doctor and the appropriate treatment sought. It has a low-grade fever of 98.5 to 101 degree F which frequently comes and goes with no discernible cause. During this stage, it throws up a characteristic butterfly shaped non-itching skin eruption across the ridge of the nose spreading over both the cheeks. Such eruptions appear on other parts of the body also. Generally, patients are photosensitive to both sun and artificial. Such eruptions generally appear prior to flare ups. As the disease progresses, the hair becomes thin, rough, brittle, breaks and falls off. Hair all over the body can get affected. The hair acquires a unique appearance and is called lupus hair. Hair regrows as treatment progresses except in places where lesions have formed. As the disease progresses it could also attack the vital organs like lung, digestive system, kidneys, bones etc. Inflammation of the lungs causes destruction of the lung tissue as well as the blood vessels. The lungs start to reduce in size. The diaphragm moves up into the thoracic cavity and the body gradually suffers oxygen deficiency. This is called vanishing lung syndrome. All these makes breathing very painful. These pains are referred to pleuritic pains. As the disease progresses more rigorous treatments are resorted to all of which has side effects of varying seriousness. A risk benefit analysis done in selecting the treatment.
  • The affordable memory foams and accessories online
    The tri-fold memory foams are the most convenient and comfortable mattresses as they are light in weight and can be folded easily. These mattresses are available in mattress sale as well as online. These memory foams are known for the motion control which controls the motion caused by the partner sharing the memory foam. Two people sharing a mattress usually feel the inconvenience as the motion caused by one person is transferred to the next person sharing the memory foam. These memory foams are available online and in mattress sales. These mattresses come in 5-inch thickness which can be spread on the floor or the beds. These memory foams come with soft polyester covers which make them even more comfortable. As these memory foams are light in weight, these are best for partying, camping, traveling, etc. Another kind of memory foams which are available online and in mattress sale is the 6-inch memory foam which is specially designed for kids. These foams are designed so that they are spill proof and which can lock the moisture. The foams are treated with natural green tea which can repel bed bugs and mites. The natural green tea also makes the memory foam odor free. These foam mattresses come with vibrant bright covers which are loved by children. These mattresses are available in various sizes such as queen, king, twin sizes, etc. The various size memory foams can be used in children's room as they are affordable, spill proof and moisture free. The memory foams are designed so that the air and heat circulate through the memory foam. The memory foams are available in various sizes and thickness starting from 5 inches. These memory foams can be bought online and in mattress sale. The mattresses are designed with high-end technology. These memory foams come with soft covers which add to the comfort and convenience. As these memory foams are light in weight, these are easy to carry and can be used while partying, camping, traveling, etc. These memory foams come in various sizes which can be spread on the floor or the beds.
  • Digital vs analog hearing aids – which one to choose
    Hearing loss is a debilitating problem causing severe frustration and isolation. According to a recent research by the World Health Organization, more than 50 million Americans have been affected by hearing loss. Almost 1 in 5 Americans of 12 and older age have hearing loss due to adverse impact communication. Based on research conducted by the American Academy of Audiology, hearing loss is considered a common health condition across the United States. Another study by the Hearing Health Foundation has estimated the number of Americans who are living with hearing loss have increased than those who are living with diabetes, Alzheimer’s, or epilepsy. Despite the increasing numbers of individuals suffering from hearing loss, professional experts have estimated that only 20% of them wear hearing aids. Hearing aid technology: With the advancement in technology, many new and improved hearing aid options are coming up, which are quite helpful for increasing hearing abilities. Hearing aids are available based on two different categories - analog and digital. Choosing the right hearing aid helps you to get all the options for accurate hearing aspects. Consulting the audiologist is quite helpful when you get confused about deciding on the best type of hearing aid for solving your hearing loss problem. Below are some of the hearing aid comparisons done for analog and digital models, so that you can choose them based on your lifestyle. Analog hearing aids: Analog hearing aids are effective in making the continuous sound waves loud. They work on a similar principle as analog sound amplification equipment that converts the sound waves into electrical waves. These waves are later amplified and then converted back into sound waves in the earphone. Hearing aid comparison helps you to know the best way to choose analog or digital hearing aid. Based on the recommendations of a hearing instrument specialist, the hearing aid manufacturer adjusts the sound in the analog hearing aid machine suitable for the individual.
    • These are programmable and users could alter their settings anytime.
    • They are easier to adjust when moving from a noisier area to a quiet environment.
    • These are cheaper hearing aids when compared to digital hearing aids.
    • They are more powerful when compared to digital hearing aids.
    • They are preferred for long-term usage.
    Digital Hearing Aids: Digital hearing aids are helpful for converting the sound waves into digital codes, which can be manipulated using the hearing aid. Later the waves are returned as sound waves in the earphone. Going through hearing aid comparisons will help you choose the best product according to your need. Digital codes are analyzed and proper adjustments are made for producing sound. Since digital hearing aids can convert sound waves into digital signals, it would be easier to duplicate each sound to allow complex amplification and processing.
    • The digital sound technology improves hearing process.
    • It reduces background noise.
    • It has variable program settings.
    • The sound can be adjusted based on specific hearing loss patterns.
    • It is easy to adjust to different environments.
    • One can hear at wide circumstances.
    Based on the above hearing aid comparisons, both the digital and analog hearing aids are found efficient in their own ways to solve hearing problems. Analog hearing aids are much cheaper when compared to digital hearing aids, but digital varieties offer sharp sound and efficient amplification when compared to others.
  • Choose Under Armour clothing for the sporty you
    About Under Armour The company started with a simple plan to make a superior T-shirt. The idea was to build a product that would help the athletes perform without too much sweating. The plan worked and today, Under Armour is a well-known brand in the business of making performance-oriented clothing for athletes. It was in 1996 when Kevin Plan, a University of Maryland football player thought of making apparels for athletes that would keep them cool, light and dry throughout the game. He was fed up with the idea of changing his T-shirt after every game because of heavy sweating. Plank was absolutely sure that there would be something which was better than a traditional T-shirt. After doing careful research on this subject and speaking with several experts, he came up with his first product, HeatGear T-shirt. Simply put, this product helped athletes keep cool, dry and light in extremely hot conditions. The fabric of this cloth was made of synthetic materials which had moisture-weakening properties. Kevin named his company Under Armour, which made people curious about his products. He ran his company from the basement of his grandmother's house and used to travel the entire East Coast selling his products from the trunk of his car. In 1996, he made $17,000 in sales. In the following year, he came out with another product, ColdGear, which was designed to keep the athletes warm, dry and light during the winters. The AllSeasonGear line followed later which keeps the athletes comfortable between the extremes. In 1998, Kevin shifted his headquarters from his granny's basement to a new building in Baltimore, MD. Clearly, Under Armour had arrived. Innovation down the years In 2009, UA introduced a new product, Recharge Suit. This product offered 50% less soreness, 50% less tiredness, and 30% more power after a game. The unique design of the fabric made it possible for the athlete to recover 100 % faster than ever. The Company launched the UA Armour39 in 2011, which married performance with cutting-edge technology. This compression shirt is fitted with electronic touch points that generate biometric signals which enable trainers to track the performance of the athlete. Under Armour does not make products just for men. So in 2012, Kevin and his team brought out the Armour Bra that let women choose both her band and the cup size. In other words, this amazing product makes you feel comfortable and totally in control. One of the most amazing products that the company has developed is the Armour39 which is the first of its kind performance-monitoring system for the athletes. Values of the Company Under Armour prides itself on the following values; Innovation Inspiration Reliability Integrity Consistent with these values, Kevin and the rest of the company seek to do business with partners and sub-contractors who adhere to these practices and the Code of Conduct.
  • Things you need to find out about a Yorkie on sale
    Yorkshire Terriers are energetic and fun-loving companions. They make for wonderful pets and will remain forever loyal to you. Buying a Yorkie is a long term commitment and must not be done on an impulse. You need to ensure that the Yorkies puppies on sale are healthy, well-bred and don't show any signs of behavioral problems. It is also essential to ensure that the breeder you are buying from is ethical and is not running a puppy mill. There are a few things you need to know about a Yorkie puppy before buying it. Listed below are a few of them. When you visit a breeder, ask them to show you the living conditions that the Yorkie has been raised in. Consider it a red flag if they decline. If you are very particular about the Yorkie's pedigree, ask the breeder about it's parents. Also find out if they can furnish you with the pedigree papers to prove that the puppy doesn't come from an inbred line. Ask the breeder to meet the puppy's parents. Assess their behavior and temperament and check if they are in good health. Ask the breeders if they have noticed any health issues in the puppy. Find out if the breeder follows the practice of cutting off dogs' tales. This is a form of mutilation and must not be encouraged. Thoroughly check the Yorkie puppy's eyes, coat, nose and ears to assess its overall health. Find out if the breeders follow a return policy. Find out what diet is suitable for the puppy. Ask them if they have started the vaccination program for the puppy and what shots they have already given. Observe whether the breeder is showing care or concern about you. A good breeder would always want to ensure the puppies are reaching the right person. Don't get offended if they screen you. Find out if the breeder is providing a health guarantee. Most breeders give a minimum of 72 hour guarantee for the health and wellbeing of the puppies, in addition to a one year genetic health guarantee. If you are looking for a purebred Yorkie puppie, ask the breeder if their puppies are registered with the AKC (American Kennel Club). AKC is an American dog registry that declares the purity of dogs based on their DNA. Check if the puppies are dewormed regularly. Find out if the breeder requires you to get your puppy spayed/neutered at a certain age.
  • 3 common Wi-Fi issues and how to fix them
    These days, we use our smartphones, tablets, and laptops for everything and anything. But, these devices aren't very useful without the power of the internet. As a result, many individuals sign up for Wi-Fi services in their homes. These services are affordable and convenient. However, there are times when our routers don't work correctly, leading to slower internet speeds and other problems. Here are a few Wi-Fi issues and how to fix them. Constant router crashing Having a router that constantly restarts can be frustrating. You could lose your network during a work call or when watching an exciting movie. If you face this issue, consider giving the router a full reset. All you need is a paper clip to hold down the tiny reset button on the router for 30 seconds. Then configure the device again to ensure it works efficiently. Dropping connection Connection drops may occur during certain times of the day or when you use specific appliances, especially microwaves. Many microwaves that run at 2.5GHz frequency can interfere with the network connection. You could face the same issue with older microwave models without a shield. This issue can also be a result of interference from other networks. For example, the connection may drop if your neighbor has the same network with heavy usage during certain times. But you don't need to look for a new Wi-Fi provider in your area just yet. Try changing your router's channel or perform a factory reset to remedy this. Devices not connecting to the Wi-Fi Sometimes, your laptop or computer may not be able to connect to the Wi-Fi network. One way to resolve this issue is to reset your Wi-Fi router to the original factory settings. If this doesn't help, try using an ethernet cable to connect your laptop or desktop directly to the router. If that fails, too, you may have to invest in a new router. If you want a new Wi-Fi connection at home, look up the internet for "Wi-Fi in my area" or "Fiber Wi-Fi in my area" to find the best local company based on your need. A fiber-optic connection, commonly referred to as fiber, is considered a better alternative to boost internet speed.